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REVOLUTIONS de Paris n. 69

Sotto Re Luigi XVI, monarca assoluto per diritto divino, la società francese del XVIII secolo era suddivisa in tre classi: nobiltà, clero e terzo stato, privo dei privilegi che spettavano alle altre due classi..

La carenza di cibo, dovuta alle pessime annate degli anni 1778/1788, la crisi industriale, il vertiginoso aumento dei prezzi e l’aumento delle imposte portò i francesi a contestare la monarchia.

Il 21 luglio 1788 si riunì un’assemblea formata da nobiltà, clero e terzo Stato che decise di mettere in atto lo sciopero delle imposte; l’8 agosto Luigi XVI annunciò la convocazione degli Stati Generali per il 5 maggio 1789 :

Il 25 agosto Brienne rinunciò all’incarico di ministro delle Finanze e venne sostituito da Necker.

Luigi XVI, nella speranza di evitare ulteriori contrasti, riunì l’Assemblea dei Notabili per discutere le richieste del terzo Stato, ma questi rifiutarono ogni istanza; Luigi XVI, tuttavia, con un decreto reale del 27 novembre 1788, annunciò che agli imminenti Stati Generali cui avrebbero partecipato almeno un migliaio di deputati, garantendo una rappresentanza doppia per il Terzo Stato .(circa il 96% della popolazione) .

Le elezioni del 1789 portarono all’elezione di 291 rappresentanti dei nobili, 303 per il clero e 610 per il terzo stato il quale richiedeva inoltre il diritto di partecipare,con un voto a testa rendendo inutile (qualora fosse mantenuta la vecchia regola del voto per Ordine) il raddoppio dei suoi rappresentanti.

L’Assemblea iniziò i lavori il 17 giugno, col proposito di trasformarsi da Assemblea degli stati ad Assemblea del popolo (Assemblea Nazionale). Il Re tentò di chiudere, inascoltato, l’assemblea e ripristinare la distinzione degli ordini,

L’11 luglio il Re destituisce il ministro Necker imponendogli l’esilio; il 12 luglio la popolazione organizza una manifestazione di protesta e il 13 luglio vengono dati alle fiamme quaranta dei cinquanta ingressi di Parigi.

Il 14 luglio 1789 i rivoltosi assaltano la Bastiglia.

Il 26 agosto l’Assemblea regionale approva la “dichiarazione dei diritti dell’uomo e del cittadino”; il Re si rifiuta di promulgare la Dichiarazione.

Nel 1789 esce il primo numero di “REVOLUTIONS de Paris”

De l’Imprimérie des Rivolutions de Paris, rue ses Marais, faobourg Saint Germain, n. 20

Les grandes ous paroissent grands Que parce que nous sommes à genoux ……Levons nous ……

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